Tabulation facilitates comparison, analysis and interpretation of data easily with the help of statistical measures such as averages, dispersion, correlation, regression, deviations etc. It is a systematic and logical arrangement of data in the form of Rows and Columns with respect to the characteristics of data. The population of this study was made up of large sized steel companies world-wide. Consider the function: Z = f(A,B,C) = + It typically involves cross-sectional and longitudinal studies using questionnaires or interviews to collect large amount of data. Questionnaires as data collection tool provide both the researcher and the responder with many advantages. The necessary condition for combining two terms is that the indices of the two terms must differ by one logic variable which must also be the same. Akin to most qualitative methods, case study is time consuming. (iii) The nature of statistical analyses undertaken. The review helped to identify gaps in knowledge and formed the basis for developing the framework to aid the implementation of sustainability issues at the strategic level. However, after addressing the research problems assisted by the quantitative results, the study moved further to explain in explorative manner how steel companies can develop and implement sustainability management framework with a monitoring and review mechanism using composite sustainability performance index while evaluating the needs and expectations of the stakeholders. The case study was performed at a typical Steel Plant in India. Minterm 12 is present in A and AB, so again either can be used. It is defined as ‘an inquiry into a social or human problem, based on testing a hypothesis or theory composed of variables, measured with numbers, and analysed with statistical procedure to determine whether the hypothesis or theory hold true’ (Creswell, 1994). Many studies put forward that Cross Tabulation is one of the most preferred methods of analyzing market research or survey data. Attempt to motivate informants to cooperate with the study seriously, All participants have been informed that the summary of the findings will be circulated, Informants were requested to provide inputs in designated time frame, Assess the impact of alternate framing of questions, Discussion organized at the initial stage to resolve the questionnaire format, Followed in the questionnaire development; most were selected questions with valid measurement properties. A review of related research in the field. Some research questions which start with what require survey method to focus on contemporary events. 1010, 0011, 1001.......Index 2 Note that the above solution can be derived algebracially. The prime implicants are: + + There are two types of data collection mechanisms namely qualitative and quantitative research methods. Initially, only about 28 questionnaires were returned. One should examine various alternatives when choosing research strategy. From the second list we can see that the expression is now reduced to: Z = + C + A + The empirical assessment for capturing the perceptions and views of managers on the understanding of sustainability issues in steel industries was conducted in Chapter 4 based on the samples taken from the various countries. Note that the ticks are just there to show that one term has been combined with another term. To fulfil the purpose with this thesis, both exploratory and descriptive approaches have been chosen. Research questions start with what questions, which according to Table 3.3 suggest research strategies such as survey and archival analysis. A sample is used to gather information about the variable. Subsequent to development and implementation of sustainability management system at a steel plant, a tool for monitoring and assessing sustainability in steel industry has been developed for a typical steel plant in Chapter 7. Table 3.5 Key Informant Approach to the Measurement of Organizational Properties, If only one informant, then attempt to identify the most informative person, Most of the informants were the head of the CSR, environment and other related departments or the senior level managers, Recognize the role of person’s emotional involvement with the subject. Cross tabulations provide a way of analyzing and comparing the results for one or more variables with the results of another (or others). Difficulties in selecting truly a representative sample 3. 1. You can skip testing the hypothesis and base the analysis on frequency tables and cross-tabulations only. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! the function, although decimal notation is also used for the It should not be such as necessitates to read the footnotes or the explanation so as to properly understand a table. 4 QM Method Example Step 1 : Divide all the minterms (and don’t cares) of a … For example, the survey that determined the frequency or number of employees of a firm owning different brands of mobile phones like Blackberry, Nokia, I phone, etc. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. Suggestions for further work are made. There are no disadvantages of offering rewards or incentives to increase response rates. The reliability of the sample depends upon the appropriateness of the sampling method used. The three types of quantitative research are experiments, quasi-experiments and surveys (SJI, 1999). (0000,0001,0010,0011,0101,0111,1000,1010,1100,1101,1111) in binary form. Reliability focuses on the question of whether the measurement device produces consistent results across observations, providing the researcher with a way of assessing the trustworthiness of the findings (Martella et al., 1999). To collect data within case study, Yin (1994) suggests six sources of evidence viz. Now take an example to understand the process. Quine–McCluskey method is a tabular method that has an advantage over Karnaugh maps when a large number of inputs are present (more than five variables). Price - Actual dollars spent per completed survey when the only cost of contacting someone was to send them an e-mail is low when compared to other methods; Online surveys are accessible to most target audiences. Concept of Tabulation: Tabulation i.e. The survey technique is the most widely used method in social science and also the most relevant to this study. There is neither a fast rule to selecting research methods nor best research method, as the use of each research method depends on the form of research question, the research objectives and contextual situation (Yin, 1994). A single case holistic was chosen, since the considered Steel Plant was thought to represent a significant contribution to the knowledge and theory of sustainability management. ... and explain how it can influence measures of central tendency. It is the only prime implicant that covers the minterm decimal 15 and it also includes 5, 7 and 13. Because of the broad scope of the study and the industrial context of the research, a wide range of research techniques was adopted to achieve the research aim and objectives. Tabular Method Compute all prime implicants Find a minimum expression for Boolean functions No visualization of prime implicants Can be programmed and implemented in a computer. In previous chapter, we discussed K-map method, which is a convenient method for minimizing Boolean functions up to 5 variables. Reference this. Forecasting is essentially a process of analyzing the past and present business movements and trends to obtain some idea or clues regarding future trends and business movements. Company Registration No: 4964706. The sample size of 300 for distribution of questionnaire to managers of steel plant and 120 for stakeholders, respectively, was chosen. This section provides a brief description of these research methods. Identify internal and external stakeholders and Who are the steel companies key stakeholders. Manual data entry can require less up front investment, education and allows for easier oversight of data that is not easily categorized by machines. Evaluate, How significant are the stakeholders’ legitimacy to influence and urgency to influence the steel companies sustainability issues? Digital electronics deals with the discrete-valued digital signals. The tabular method reduces the function to a set of prime implicants. Management Thus, one minimal solution is: Z = + BD + + (0,1,1,2,2,3,1,2,2,3,4) in the index form. Empirical studies are lengthy. Combining both quantitative and qualitative research methods has proven to be more powerful than a single approach (Sherif, 2002) and very effective (Lee, 1991). As a result, data is collected from a smaller number of samples than would normally have been the case using a quantitative approach such as questionnaire survey (Ruiker, 2004). A larger sample size lowers the likely error in generalizing the results from the sample to the population (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill 2000). 4. The choice of research methodology and the reasons for its selection are also provided and mapped out against research objectives and associated tasks along with anticipated research output in Table 3.6. Hussey and Hussey (1997) argue that research constructs in a descriptive study must be supported by established theory. 5. Exploratory research aims at generating basic knowledge and demonstrates the character of a problem by collecting information through exploration. The comparison of both qualitative and quantitative research epistemology has been tabulated in Table 3.2. D + BD + A + AB. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. 9. It differs to other qualitative research studies in the sense that the focus of attention is on individual cases as opposed to the whole population of cases (Ruiker, 2004). A disadvantage of a line graph is that one particular data point cannot be effectively evaluated using this method. Lack of Secrecy: Graphical representation makes the full presentation of information that may hamper the objective to keep something secret.. 5. programs have been developed employing this algorithm. From the truth table, you can directly get a boolean expression via sum of products, but this is also a rather large expression. 3. Descriptive research involves examining a phenomenon to define it more or to differentiate it from other phenomena (Dane, 1990; Martella et al., 1999). This chapter discusses the research design and methodology including their strengths and weaknesses and highlights the general approach to the PhD research. A case study may combine a variety of data collection methods and research strategies (Fellow and Liu, 2003). Explanatory research aims to explain why a phenomenon occurs. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using each of the three measures of central tendency. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs. Bear in mind that the dash indicates a missing variable and must line up in order to get a third list. Bear in mind that when two terms are combined, one of the combined terms has one digit more at logic 1 than the other combined term. Exploratory research aims at generating basic knowledge and demonstrates the character of a problem by collecting information through exploration. According to Yin (1994), there are four types of research designs for case studies; i.e., single-case (holistic) designs, single-case (embedded) designs, multiple-case (holistic) designs and multiple-case (embedded designs). Disadvantages of Surveys: Inflexible Design: The survey that was used by the researcher from the very beginning, as well as the method of administering it, cannot be changed all throughout the process of data gathering. listed at the left and all the minterms of the function along the top. Information was sought from various sources including industrial and academic publications, institutions and university databases, the Internet, seminars, workshops and conference notes attended. These prime implicants are then examined to see if some are redundant. number of variables, e.g. All these factors however also become the basis for major disadvantages. Chances of bias 2. Investigate the concept of sustainable development in steel industry. To measure the incidence of various views and options in a chosen sample, Usually a small number of non-representative cases, Respondents selected to fulfill a given quota or requirement, Usually a large number of cases representing the population of interest, Participant observation, semi and unstructured interview, focus groups, conversation and discourse analysis, Structured interview, self administered questionnaires, experiments, structured observation, content analysis/statistical analysis, Statistical usually in the form of tabulations, Findings are conclusive and usually descriptive in nature, Findings are not conclusive and cannot be used to make generalizations, Used to recommend a final course of action. These questions will be answered through an archival analysis of existing evaluations made on sustainability in order to get a background of the subject itself. The target was to collect at least 40 completed questionnaires. Cross-tabs or cross tabulation is a quantitative research method appropriate for analyzing the relationship between two or more variables. It may be complex, double or simple depending upon the nature of categorisation. Note that the only prime implicant here is Z = . Table 3.3 Different Situations for Data Collection Strategies (Source : Yin, 1994). Minterm 1 is present in and D. Similarly for minterm 3. According to Yin (1994), four tests are commonly used to establish the quality of any empirical social research such as construct validity, internal validity, external validity and reliability. 0000...................Index 0 5. Finally, the number of returned questionnaire approached the figure of 50. Statistical and administrative purposes require different kinds of … Appropriate selection of research methods leads to the success of any research (Steele, 2000). We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. From the above chart, BD is an essential prime implicant. Quine-McClukey tabular method is a tabular method based on the concept of prime implicants. The method According to Huber and Power (1985), the ‘key informant’ approach for obtaining quantitative data on organizational properties is widespread in organizational and strategic management research, but they warn that its use requires careful consideration of certain issues to reduce potential measurement error.
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