Still, this advantage will not fully compensate for the yield penalty of late planting. "This doesn't mean that widening rows in order to use a larger planter is unsound, but those making the decision to do this should pencil in about 1.5 bushel less yield," he said. I screwed up 2 years ago and had one 80 acre field at 3 populations.70,000 ,120000 ,and I reseeded halve at 200,000. Narrow row spacings are usually any spacing less than 28 inches. Row spacing. Skip row soybeans. With funding from Ohio … Ground applications can be made perpendicular to the row. The academic community accepted that after many years of research. Row Spacing. How to avoid yield loss with late-planted soybeans. A wide range of row spacings have been used successfully in soybean production. For cotton growers, twin row spacing allows corn and soybeans to be planted in twin rows with the same equipment used to plant cotton in a single-row formation with minimal equipment issues. How to limit soil compaction. Narrow rows and slightly higher planting rates provide a better chance of maximizing yields. Two Nebraska On-Farm Research data-intensive management studies in 2018 showed no statistical yield difference in see… Seeding rate depends on both row spacing … If this article is to be used in any other manner, permission from Swoboda, C.M., P. Pedersen, P.D. Reduction of row spacing to between 7 to 15 inches will increase yields and reduce competition due to weeds. The study’s average early season (2 to 4 weeks after planting) established soybean stand was 130,500 plants/acre with the planting rate of 150,000 pls/acre and 163,800 plants/acre with 200,000 pls/acre. Ames, IA 50011-2031 According to Nafziger, these results suggest that choosing to plant in 30-inch rows instead of narrower rows could bring a small yield penalty. ", There may be ways to reduce yield loss related to changing to wider rows, but the results of recent research in this area are not conclusive. We have moved away from drilling soybeans in favor of planting. Effect of row spacing and seeding rate on soybean yield. So, what's the right population for your fields? and Iowa State University Extension and Outreach. This aspect of narrow rows could result in cost savings in your weed control program. Corn planted in twin rows should have uniform triangular spacing. 2. Recent research studies on soybeans have shown an average yield advantage of approximately 4 bu/acre with drilled narrow-row and 15-inch row soybeans over soybeans in 30-inch rows. Figure 1. Subscribe to receive email alerts when new information is posted. Debruin, J.L. As herbicide resistance continues to spread, the increased competitiveness with narrow rows is an alternate selection pressure of weeds that will help preserve the value of herbicides. Most corn planters are set to plant 30-inch rows, and 15-inch soybeans are generally planted by using split-row units placed between the 30-inch rows… 3. For the 7.5-inch row-spacing treatment, planting population was 195,000 seeds/acre. Alternatively, having narrow-row soybean can present some challenges. Another reason given for moving from narrow soybean rows to 30-inch rows is that white mold tends to be more severe when the ground and the lower crop canopy stay wet. contained within may not be the most current and accurate depending on when it is accessed. They were seeding there soybeans with 1895 jd disc drills considered to be the best drill out there for soybeans. Best management practices were used for soybean production during the study. The trials included the evaluation of row spacing, seeding rate, planting dates, and fertility for both a group III and IV variety. The table below shows the planted population, the stand count at harvest, yield and per acre seed cost ($67 for 140,000 seeds) for each of the planting rates. 2011. Most corn planters are set to plant 30-in. If white mold has been consistently problematic in your fields, consider alternative management strategies. Copyright © 2020 Iowa State University of Science and Technology. Keep in mind that narrow-row soybean is vulnerable to many of the same yield-limiting factors that wide-row soybean encounter. Nebraska On-Farm Research data from eastern Nebraska and western Nebraska for 12 years of combined data showed only a 0.6 bu/ac yield increase when seeding 180,000 soybean seeds/acre compared to 120,000 seeds/acre in 15-inch or 30-inch rows. The primary reason for this advantage is light utilization; canopy closure is approximately 15 days earlier in 15-inch rows compared to 30-inch rows. This demonstrates that manydifferent considerations beyond simply yield potential canaffect the best practices for each individual grower. The soybeans were planted in 75-foot by 15-foot plots and were planted perpendicular to the field tile. Soybean populations in 30-inch rows. However, there are farmers who still hold on to their 15-inch split planters for planting corn and soybeans. narrow row concept with cultivation. Figure 1. Just over 50 percent of Illinois soybean fields remain in 15-inch rows. 3). We prefer the planter for a number of reasons, most of which have to do with precise metering and depth control. Links to this article are strongly encouraged, and this article may be republished Other potential benefits include less moisture loss, better weed control, and reduced erosion. This difference varied among the sites, from no difference to up to nearly four bushels per acre. In areas prone to pathogens like white mold, plant spacing of up to 30 inches may be preferable. soybeans are generally planted by using split-row units placed between the 30-in. We typically see a yield advantage, however, for soybeans in rows 20 inches or less. This opens the possibility of achieving higher yields and profit margins in soybean years while at least maintaining the status quo in corn years. The further north you go, the more of a benefit there is to closing the canopy fast. "We do not believe that changing the seeding rate is likely to help," Nafziger explained. Yield Advantage Research has been conducted in Michigan to deter- Read seed drop or plants per acre from table below (intersection of line and column). Air moves better around plants in wider rows, so soybeans in wide rows may be less susceptible to damage by white mold. is relatively lower in the central-western areas. Solid seeded soybeans are those planted in row widths of less than 10 inches, and commonly in a 7-inch row spacing. While narrow-row soybeans will compete more effectively with weeds, row spacing should not be so narrow as to prevent between-row cultivation. Research across the Midwest over several years has consistently shown that soybean planted in narrow rows (<30 inches) has a yield advantage compared to wide rows (≥ 30 inches). (800) 262-3804, Iowa State University 1990. Dr. Mark Licht is an assistant professor and extension cropping systems specialist with Iowa State University Extension and Outreach. In addition, modern drills have much better depth control than older grain drills. "We know from our research that such loss will not always occur," said Nafziger. Agronomy Journal 103:1712-1716. For example, how will herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides be applied without driving on rows? Nevertheless, it is best to choose a soybean variety based on its productivity rather than on traits for which the benefits are not certain. I prefer, actually, 15 inch rows seeded with a row unit. Esker, and G.P. However, increasing row spacing is not always beneficial to yield. Most corn planters are set to plant 30-inch rows, and 15-inch soybeans are generally planted by using split-row units placed between the 30-inch rows. This increase resulted from drilled soybeans — those with rows less than 10 inches apart — losing ground to 30-inch rows, which now occupy nearly one-third of the soybean acres. Row spacings were 14 and 28 inches. Often, row spacing decisions are made based on what equipment is already available. Drilled soybean (~7.5 in.) Since narrow-row soybean reach canopy closure quicker, it becomes more competitive with weeds, preventing weeds from germinating once the canopy closes. For northern soybean growing regions, yield is a function of light capture, he explains. Soybeans can be susceptible to disease, with their closed canopy creating a humid microclimate. and P. Pedersen. Similarly, there was little interaction between row width and seeding rate. Determine average row width, in inches (left column). A corn planter usually does a better job of planting than a grain drill, but soybeans typically yield about 5% less in 30-inch vs. 7.5 inch row spacing in New York even with lower final stands. In Ohio, most soybeans are planted in row widths ≤ 15 inches. In spite of thisclear advantage, row spacing preferences vary greatly acrossNorth America, and 30-inch row soybeans are common andeven gaining in many areas. This article was originally published on February 22, 2018. A U of I study over the past two years funded by the Illinois Soybean Association compared 15-inch and 30-inch soybean rows, at different planting dates and seeding rates, over six sites in Illinois. The increasing width of planters – many are now 60 ft. wide – means that splitting rows with additional units makes planters very heavy. The part that was on 70,000 had the best land and yielded better than the rest but had lodged tangled beans. The reason I like 15" rows for the Eagle soybeans is that this spacing allows the roundup ready forage beans to canopy much quicker which means much less maintanance in terms of weed control and soil moisture savings. G90-963. Be conscious about past yield-limiting factors, such as brown stem rot, soybean cyst nematode, and white mold, and choose a variety that will appropriately fit your cropping system. The information One option is to invest in a split-row planter, which works with both corn and soybean for the appropriate row spacing needed for each crop. rows. Equipment expenses are not trivial. In June, the soybeans planted in 30-inch rows looked better than the soybeans planted in 15- and 7.5-inch row widths. His extension, research and teaching program is focused on how to holistically manage Iowa cropping systems to achieve productivity, profitability and en... ISU Extension and Outreach Agriculture Online Crop Talk member JeffO is considering making the switch to 15s. Average row spacing in Illinois soybean fields has increased over the past decade after narrowing for several decades before that, according to University of Illinois crop sciences professor Emerson Nafziger. For the 15-inch row-spacing treatment, planting population was 180,000 seeds/acre. Copyright © 2020 University of Illinois Board of Trustees. Drilled soybeans will reach canopy a little quicker, which is a good thing. the author is required. Row Spacing. The increasing width of planters — many are now 60 feet wide — means that splitting rows with additional units makes planters very heavy. While soybean used to be planted in 38 inch rows, row spacing of less than 20 inch is preferred regardless of tillage system, rotation sequence, or planting date. Skip-row planting is effective because it does not plant wheel track rows, making it possible for ground applications all season long while providing much of the yield advantage of narrow row spacing. The increasing width of planters — many are now 60 feet wide — means that splitting rows with additional units makes planters very heavy. 3. 2150 Beardshear Hall For soybeans planted on droughty soils in cen- The yield difference between 30-inch rows and rows 20 inches or less can be as much as 2.9 bushels per acre, but there are other considerations. Wright, D., A. Lenssen, and V. Schmitt. If brown stem rot, soybean cyst nematode, or white mold are issues in your fields, narrow-row soybean will be affected more severely. 1. Canopy closure earlier in the growing season results in greater light interception and higher growth rates. Narrow-row soybeans lap row middles sooner, reducing the need for weed control. Intermediate row width can increase soybean profits. 2Purdue Extension recommends row spacing between 7.5 and 15 inches for maximum soybean yield. Most research suggests that drilled or 15-inch row spacing, compared to 30-inch rows, tends to yield better over time. State & National Extension Partners. "Because late-planted soybeans tend to produce smaller plants, we had expected to find that narrower rows would tend to yield more than wide rows when planting was late," said Nafziger. Strategies for success, including guidance on dates, maturities, row spacing and planting depth. Planting soybeans is really nothing new, and you can say the whole thing has come full circle. Agronomy Journal 100:704-710. However, narrow rows tend to have an advantage over wide rows even in late-planting situations because they are able to capture available sunlight more quickly. What type of fertilizer do you recommend for growing Eagle soybeans? 3.1 Evaluation of influence of row spacing on yield using producer survey data. A skip-row planting system may prove to be an effective option if aerial application is not desirable. The primary reason for this advantage is light utilization; canopy closure is approximately 15 days earlier in 15-inch rows compared to 30-inch rows. Soybean yield response to plant distribution in Fusariumvirguliforme infested soils. Research across the Midwest over several years has consistently shown that soybean planted in narrow rows (<30 inches) has a yield advantage compared to wide rows (≥ 30 inches). Row spacing is a management decision that often comes up as a priority for achieving high-yielding soybean. If you plant corn in 20-inch rows soybeans will be planted in 20-inch rows. This is the dominant reason farmers choose not to plant narrow row soybean. rows, and 15-in. Factorssuch as equipment costs, work… Opting not to split large planters means that both corn and soybeans are typically planted in 30-inch rows. In most cases, there is no difference between 7.5, 10, 15, or 20 inch row spacing and anything less than 30 inch is therefore consider narrow row spacing. is more Wide rows are also easier to drive through to spray or cultivate. This tends to be effective for applications earlier in the season while aerial applications should be considered for fungicide and insecticide applications later in the season. Source: De Bruin and Pedersen, 2008; Swoboda et al., 2011. Either determine average spacing between seeds (or plants) in inches (top line) OR determine average number of seeds (or plants)/50 ft. row length (bottom line). Most corn planters are set to plant 30-inch rows, and 15-inch soybeans are generally planted by using split-row units placed between the 30-inch rows. Soybeans grown in narrow rows (≤ 15 inches) tend to out-yield soybean produced in wide row width (30 inches) due to increased sunlight interception in narrow rows. Planting in late April or early May will result in higher yields than planting in late May or June regardless of row spacing. Excluding one southern Illinois site where stands were not adequate, 15-inch rows yielded on average 1.5 bushels more than 30-inch rows. ROW SPACING. Effect of row width on soybean yield from experiments in Iowa. Narrow rows (15 or 18 in) were compared to wide rows (30 or 36 in). Soybean seeding rates of 90,000 to 120,000 seeds/acre resulted in the highest profitability. All rights reserved. 2013. Applications of insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides should be made in a way that works with narrow row spacing. Add 000, as all counts are in thousands. The best and worst conditions to plant in. Additionally, more recent research has shown that corn yields in 30-inch and 20-inch row spacing are similar 50% of the time and benefit the 20-inch row spacing the remainder of the time for currently available genetics and management practices. "If incidence of disease that can be controlled by fungicide is decreased in wider rows, then we would expect fungicide application to produce less response in wide than in narrow rows.". Soybeans were drilled with a John Deere 750 no-till drill for the 7.5-inch row-spacing treatment and planted with a … Justifying the cost of a narrow-row planter for a single crop may not be feasible. In fact, white mold may be more problematic in narrow row soybeans. Recommended seeding rates by Minnesota region and maturity group. Most of these studies have concluded that planting soybean in narrow rows will increase … Row spacing class frequencies were variable across the U.S. soybean production region (Fig. Recent research studies have shown a 3 to 4 bushel per acreyield advantage for soybeans planted in drilled narrow rowsor 15-inch rows compared to 30-inch rows. 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